Post about "Education"

When to Change Membranes in your Reverse Osmosis Water System

The technology of reverse osmosis water systems is ever expanding but we mustn’t forget that for any equipment to function efficiently and for as long a time as possible, we need to maintain it.
On the surface, when to change the membrane of a reverse osmosis water system might seem obvious and most companies make it simple by relying on the following three guidelines:

The three year cut off (manufacturers usually put this time period as their warranty). An increase in the RO (reverse osmosis) permeate conductivity, related to water quality requirement. Designated reduction in permeate or product flow rate when related to water demand.

However, there is more to it than first meets the eye and the reliance on simple parameters can actually be counterproductive and lead to premature membrane replacement. So, what should you look at?

Is Age Important

RO membranes can last up to ten years and still be functioning with the utmost efficiency. Age associated performance deterioration occurs very slowly and it is much more likely that a replacement is needed for an entirely different reason than age, one most often related to how well the reverse osmosis water system is maintained.

Oxidant Exposure

Free chlorine is a strong oxidant that can have a huge negative impact on membrane life. The extent of damage will correlate with the chlorine concentration and the amount of time the chlorine has been in contact with the element. Any contact, however, causes issues and can lead to the need to prematurely take membrane replacement action.

Salt Rejection

Decline in salt rejection can vary, but if you decide that the decline is unacceptable when occurring in sync with an increase in normal permeate flow, you will need to consider replacing the membrane elements in their entirety. Before you do, however, you need to gain a little more knowledge about the problem. Measure the conductivity of the permeate water from each membrane vessel, for example, and you will be able to determine exactly which element needs changing and the exact location of that element. A complete replacement may not be necessary.


The primary cause of membrane deterioration is fouling, which is succinctly defined as the increase in RO feed-to-concentrate pressure drop of more than 15% (or the permeate flow declining more than 15%). Particles collecting and impacting on the surface of the element make the job of cleaning solutions much tougher, and in some cases impossible. More aggressive cleaning can be attempted effectively, but if it is unsuccessful membranes will need to be replaced.


The formation of scale can be a problem for a few reasons. Onsite cleaning is normally effective in solving this issue with no membrane replacement necessary, but if the scale is caused by sulfate you may end up having to go for a replacement of the concentrate-end membranes.

When you know why your reverse osmosis water system is not performing as it should, you can begin to discern whether or not you need to replace the membrane in its entirety or just a certain element. Understanding the causes of a problem and the potential extent of it might save you unnecessary time and money in getting it fixed.

Author Plate Sean Clifford is an advisor at AllWater Technologies Ltd, a wholly independent company providing consultation and water treatment equipment, including a reverse osmosis water system and effluent treatment plant. Bringing together a host of experience and specialist knowledge, the company is committed to building and maintaining long-term relationships and creating maximum value and benefit for their customers.

Special Education is Crashing – What Will You Do?

I’ve been having issues with my computer.  First, is was crashing.  Then email wasn’t working.  Next it crashed again.  I could only run one or two programs at a time, which didn’t work for me.  I would fix one problem and then another one would occur. I even took my computer to the local store.  First they said there was nothing wrong.  Then they found a program hidden in the computer written in a foreign language.  After removing the program, they were sure it would work.  Less than one hour later, it crashed again. Finally, I had to take a step back and evaluate.  Do I keep patching together issues and solutions for my computer or do I choose a new computer based on my ever changing needs?  I choose the new computer.  I am much happier.  Clients are much happier.  Work is getting done quickly and effectively.Does this cycle remind of your child or student’s IEP?  All special education issues start somewhere.  One program not working or one tool not being used and the student, family, and/or teacher become frustrated. A single element of the program is looked at and perhaps at first nobody can find the problem.  Then the issue is found and fixed!  All is supposed to be well and then CRASH!  It happens again.  Hmmm, let’s find the next issue in the IEP and try and tackle that one.  Done!  CRASH!  Here we go again.  We call in professionals to continue fixing the IEP, but maybe we need to step back.Most times when crash after crash is happening in special education, the entire IEP should be reevaluated.  How to get started:…Someone on the IEP team must take responsibility to stop the cycle of “fixing and crashing” the IEP.  You?…Team members (staff, parents and student) must talk with each other to find out what IS working throughout the program.  Find the positives!…Team members must then communicate what IS NOT working in the program.  Be honest because it might just be your piece that is not working.HINT: All team members must be aware of this process of stepping back to look at the overall issues, not just isolated incidents.  Otherwise, you will still end up with patchwork fixes.Based on your lists of what is and is not working, how can you begin to restructure and re-prioritize the child’s day to meet their current needs?  At this point, don’t worry about the formality of changing the IEP.  Use the current IEP as a blueprint for making your lists, start the restructure for a new program and when success begins to happen, make the documentation in the IEP. HINT: You don’t need an IEP meeting to have elements of change in the program documented.  Simply writing changes in a form letter and submitting a copy to the file will put it on record and may be good enough until your next IEP meeting.  Bottom line- get it in writing and get it in the file. Example:  You may find out that in the overall picture the child had too many transitions in the day.  With team effort, transitions were minimized.  Successful learning and minimal meltdowns were now occurring.  The parent or teacher writes one page that states the situation, changes made and results seen.  The one page document is addressed “To:  The Team of (Student Name)” and CC’d to the FILE.  All team members are now aware of the information it has been documented for long-term reference and accountability.Remember, not all changes are big.  Not all students are going to need a brand new IEP, as I needed a brand new computer.  But by taking a step back and evaluating current needs, what is and is not working and what can be changed in the child’s overall program, you may be amazed at the change in productivity by all team members, especially the child.

Special Training For Brain Development Of Kids

Many researchers have proven the fact that functioning of brain cells of infants is twice active as adult’s brain. Neurons are the brain cells that connect together and power of neuron have the potential of a PC. Connectivity of neurons decides the smartness or intelligence of individuals. In human, brain development and the learning ability of an individual is 50% in the first four years of age. The nerves of individuals are reduced as they grow up and this is why the 1000 trillion nerves present in an 8 months baby are reduced to 500 trillion as it grows up. A child that has given more opportunities to explore will be much smart.

A majority of children, more than 90% of them use their left brain, but the imperative fact to remember is the right brain must also be utilized. Education system present in almost all the schools is designed to develop or use the left brain. Right brain is never the less significant because it is responsible for creativity, arts, feeling, imagination, visualizing, daydreaming, rhythm, holistic thinking and many others. Hence it is equally important to develop both side of brain. It is also most important to take steps to keep both the brain much active, by keeping them to perform analytically on an equal basis. It is the responsibility of parents to give activities to their children that ensures the involvement of both brain. If both brain used by children it is probable to enhance their learning power and they can also increase their brain power. If brain development programs are offered to children they can make most of the program and develop their skills to give work to both side of brain and remains high in intelligence level. Development of brain in human beings is based on the degree of how much it is used. If it is left unused there are more probabilities for individuals to lose as brain works on the basis of use it or lose it.

To ensure the progressive brain development in children, it is the role of parents to introduce their children with a reputable brain development program. Most of the experts suggest step by step educational program to the children which is systemic and efficient. Nowadays it is very simple to find out a lot of schools which not only gives importance to academic program, but they also boost the creativity of children through their extracurricular activities. It is probable to search internet and get hold of relevant schools that present with a variety of activities to stimulate the brain and encourage the development of children. A total development program to stimulate mental activity of children is also found out in the online sites and parents can try out these activities with their children while they are at home. Getting education from a school that implements total development program is much beneficial. Search for such schools and secure admission to enhance the future of the children and boosts in brain development.